Trademark research company CompuMark and Clarivate Analytics released a 2017 report “The Trademark Ecosystem Through the Lens of the C-Suite,” which surveyed 440 C-level executives in the US and EU. The report notes that the number of trademark applications has more than doubled between 2008 and 2015. The report found that while more companies are filing for new trademarks (61% of the respondents launched new trademarks in the last 12 months), few were actively enforcing their marks against third party infringement (20% actively watch more than three quarters of their trademarks, while half only watch 26-75% of their marks). The report also found that 34% of the respondents had to change one of their brand names as a result of infringement. The respondents cited that the biggest costs of trademark infringement was loss in revenue, followed by damage to brand reputation, customer confusion and reduced customer loyalty and trust.